Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/88
Title: Studies in Techno Economic Aspects of Power Generation from Agriwaste in India
Authors: Lonia, Badhai
Supervisor: Nayar, N.K.
Singh, S.B.
Keywords: Agriwaste;Fuel;Multifuel;Biofuel;Fluidized Bed Combustion System;Briquetisation;Mechanical Engineering;Power Generation from Waste;Solid Waste Recycling
Issue Date: 10-Nov-2006
Abstract: Industrialization and urbanization has led to rapid increase in energy demand. The energy crisis of 70’s brought awareness all over the world to exploit the non conventional and renewable fuel sources. The total energy consumption in India has gradually increased from 64.91 million tones of oil equivalent (mtoe) during 1973 to 400 mtoe by 2001, indicating constant growth. As the fossil fuels (non renewables) are depleting, these are to be replaced by renewable resources such as agriwastes, wind, solar, hydel and tidal. Problems of growing abundance of agriwaste in different parts of the country, environmental pollution resulting from burning of agriwaste, and issues related to inappropriate land use, all add urgency to the challenges faced in building sustainable and environmentally sound energy systems. While every effort is being made to bridge the gap between demand and supply, there exist various technological and environmental limitations to achieve the same in practice. This study evaluates the potential of agriwaste power generation technologies, form of use of agriwaste, pre-conversion methods, utilization and its contribution to the reduction of environmental pollution, with focus on Northern region (India) (states like Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh). An agricultural residues survey was carried out to cover rice, wheat, maize, sugarcane, and cotton crops, both for the Rabi and Kharif seasons. Samples were collected from different areas in accordance with the agro-ecological zones. Estimates for agriwastes for different ecological zones were made based on the ratios between the crop size and agricultural residues. This list of major crops was further supplemented by waste forestry materials like leaves twigs and grass. Some of the industrial wastes, mainly agro based which could possibly be used as binders cum fuels like deoiled cake, spent wash ( liquid and dry ) mallee, bio fertilizer, saw dust and even bakelite were considered. While calorific value and other combustion parameters were mostly known for the major crops all these were calculated for the supplementary materials and even crops wherever necessary. Bomb calorimeter for calorific value and muffle furnace were used for volatile content, ash content and moisture content. At this stage, to have an insight into the real life situations and the issues involved in the use of agriwaste on commercial scale for power generation the case study on TWO agriwaste based power plants in Northern Region i.e. Jalkheri power plant Ltd.(JPPL) At Jalkheri village in Fategarh Sahib District of Punjab and Unichem Power Plant in Tohana village of Hisar district of Haryana were conducted. Jalkheri plant (10 MW) is using rice straw (32x28x17 bale)” in fluidized bed combustion system Nuchem Powers Ltd (4 MW) uses mustard stalks and cotton stalks and rice straw in stoker fired system. The major issues of major concerns for these plants are non availability of agriwastes, agglomeration, ash slagging and social and management problems related to collection, handling, transportation, and storage of agriwaste. The magnitude of transportation related problem can be gauged from the fact that JPPL plant needs daily 500 loads of trucks (8 tonne per truck) and trollies loads (0.8 tonne per trolly) while NPL plant needs daily 150-200 loads of trucks and trollies. With an aim to study combustion properties and alleviate problems related to agglomeration and ash slagging, agriwaste briquettes of various sizes were prepared from agri-residues i.e. rice straw, husk, bagasse, sawdust, leaves, mustard straw, cotton stalks, sunflower, groundnut shell, wood chips, deoiled cake( DOC), maize in different combinations and mixes(ratios) by weight Nine such multifuel combinations were prepared.The combustion parameters (CV; AC;VC;and MC).Their specific ranges were: Calorific values 16800-21840 kJ/kg (4000* – 5200 kCal/kg), ash (5 – 18%) and moisture content in the range 8 – 35%.Similar study was done for the six combinations of Bi-fuels samples. Linear programming model was used to optimize fuel mix for briquetting that would minimize fuel cost and provide a briquette having greater than preset value.A computer programme in C++ was developed for this purpose. The values were calculated for different combinations. These were validated using TORA Software (Annexure-E). Linear programming studies were done to find fuel mixes that would have a minimum unit cost and still have calorific value more than 16800 kJ/kg.(4000 kcal/kg). The results BFI-----BF6 (bifuel combinations) MF1-----MF9 (multifuel combinations) The range of HHV for 9 samples of multifuel came out to be 16800-21840kJ/kg (4000- 5200kCal/kg): and cost range was between Rs.1550-2150 (US$ 35-48) per tonne. Similarly bifuel HHV ranged between: 16800-21840kJ/kg (4000-4500kCal/kg) and cost range Rs.1350 -1900 (US$ 40-42) per tonne. * As a bench mark A fluidized combustor was developed for use in the incineration of agriwaste (briquetted) to find multi-fuel mixes that would burn without ash slagging and agglomeration problem. . The system has been tested with agriwaste briquettes (bi or multi) fuel combinations. By using the multifuel combination, better combustion results could be attained even at lower Bed temperature (300o C) against the recommended minimum temperature (330 o C )**. The ash contents in the multifuel combinations were also better as it gave lesser ash content (5-18 %) than single fuel results (8-22.5%). The range of temperature for minimizing the alkali formation for single fuel is recommended to be 330 o C -750 o C**. In our test cases, the range turned out to be 330 o C – 950 o C with negligible traces of alkali formation. The FBC exhaust gases were tested. The results obtained for various emissions were NO 40- 114 ppm (150-200)*; NO2 2 ppm (200-300)*; SOx 30-47 ppm (200-500)*; O2 6-15% (41%) and CO2 was 6%. All these results prove that Bi fuel and multi fuel agriwaste combinations are better not only on the combustion efficiency parameters, but also on the environmental related parameters as well. Thus, the agriwastes which are low value wastes can be turned into high value added fuels which are both energy efficient and environmental friendly. (*Permissible limits approved by Punjab Pollution Control Board (PPCB), Govt. of Punjab, India) (** Fluidized bed incineration tests of toxic liquid waste ‘Proceedings of the 15 th International Conference on Fluidized bed combustion, May 16-19, 1999, Savannah, Georgia; Grubor Borislav et al – Laboratory of thermal Engineering & Energy Research, Yugoslavia, Paper No. FBC 99-0121).
Description: The study was aimed to carry out research on agriwaste in Northern India, possibility of using the agriwaste .for power generation. Linear programming studies were done to find fuel mixes that would have a minimum unit cost and still have calorific value more than 16800 kJ/kg.(4000 kcal/kg). The range of HHV for 9 samples of multifuel came out to be 16800-21840kJ/kg (4000-5200kCal/kg): and cost range was between Rs.1550-2150 (US$ 35-48) per tonne. Similarly bifuel HHV ranged between: 16800-21840kJ/kg (4000-4500kCal/kg) and cost range Rs. 1350 - 1900 (US$ 40-42) per tonne. A fluidized combustor was developed for use in the incineration of agriwaste (briquetted) to find multi-fuel mixes that would bum without ash slagging and agglomeration problem. The system has been tested with agriwaste briquettes (bi or multi) fuel Combinations. By using the multifuel combination, better combustion results could be attained even at lower Bed temperature (3000 C) against the recommended minimum temperature (330°C). The ash contents in the multifuel combinations were also better as it gave lesser ash content (5-18 %) than single fuel results (8-22.5%). The range of temperature for minimizing the alkali formation for single fuel is recommended to be 330°C 750°C. In our test cases, the range turned out to be 330°C -950°C with negligible traces of alkali formation. The FBC exhaust gases were tested. The results obtained for various emissions were NO 40-114 ppm (150-200); NO2 2 ppm (200-300); SOx 30-47 ppm (200-500); O2 6-15% (41%) and CO2 was 6%. All these results prove that Bi fuel and multi fuel agriwaste combinations are better not only on the combustion efficiency parameters, but also on the environmental related parameters as well. Thus, the agriwastes which are low value wastes can be tumed into high value added fuels which are both energy efficient and environmental friendly.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/88
Appears in Collections:Doctoral Theses@MED

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