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|Sulphur Doped Graphene: Synthesis, Characteristics and Applications
|Brar, Loveleen K
|Graphene;Oxidized rich-S doped;Thiophene rich-S doped;Sulphur doped graphene;Hydrothermal synthesis
|Graphene is a two-dimensional sheet of carbon atoms with outstanding properties such as high electrical conductivity, mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and electron mobility. These properties lead to its multiple applications, including energy storage devices, sensors, optics and in medical field. There is a tendency of stacking between the graphene sheets because of weak van der waals interaction, resulting in reduction of specific surface area. It has zero band gap which is not suitable for switching applications. Doping is an effective approach to increase the specific surface area and widen the graphene band gap. Sulphur atom is an attractive choice for doping of graphene among the different heteroatoms since the resulting materials are expected to have wide band gap due to electron withdrawing character of sulphur. Also, the size difference from carbon will result in breaking the planar structure and reduced stacking. C-S bonds present at the edges enhance the charge storage capacity and electro-catalytic activity of the sulphur doped graphene. Oxidized rich-S doped graphene has relatively low conductivity, while thiophene rich-S doped has better conductivity and charge transfer ability. Sulphur doped graphene has been widely used in various applications such as super-capacitors, biosensors, batteries, fuel cells etc. It can be prepared by using different methods such as chemical vapour deposition, thermal annealing, electrochemical deposition and hydrothermal method. Out of the four synthesis methods, hydrothermal method is simplest, low cost, green technique with low processing temperature. However, hydrothermal method is applicable only for small scale synthesis whereas other three methods can be adapted for large scale synthesis. In hydrothermal method, sulphur doping in graphene can be done by using different precursors such as Na2S, sulphur powder and thioacetamide. Products synthesised by different precursors show variation in properties. Na2S not only acts as sulphur dopant but also a highly efficient reducing agent. Sulphur may or may not be incorporated into the synthesis of sulphur doped graphene when it is employed as a precursor in hydrothermal conditions. Both Na2S and thioacetamide emerged as good precursors for the hydrothermal production of sulphur doped graphene.
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