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Title: Design and Analysis of Multiband Planar Antenna for Future 5G Wireless Devices
Authors: Kumar, Naveen
Supervisor: Khanna, Rajesh
Keywords: 5G;MIMO;Isolation;Multiband;mmWave;Metamaterial
Issue Date: 4-Aug-2021
Publisher: Thapar University
Abstract: As the wireless communication systems are advancing continuously in terms of technology, size, features, data rate etc., the need to support multiple communication technology poses space constraints. The gadgets and devices that we are seeing these days are compact in size which not only supports voice communication but also serve as a multimedia system supporting applications like Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), multi-person video calling, high-speed internet, online high-end games, virtual reality-based apps etc. For the advanced apps/softwares there is the need of high data rate which further demands more bandwidth from the communication technology in use. Antenna is an important component of any wireless device and can affect the system performance if not properly designed. With the development of next generation of mobile communication technology i.e. Fifth Generation (5G), new frequency bands have been added to be used for mobile communication. For the first time, the bands in mmWave range between 30 GHz to 90 GHz have been earmarked for 5G use cases. This results in need to design antennas which can support the lower as well as mmWave bands for 5G communication. This motivation led to the work presented in the thesis. The thesis is focused to achieve four objectives: first one is to analyze and design a single element planar antenna. The antenna type chosen is Planar Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA) and the radiating element is analyzed using Theory of Characteristic Mode (TCM) analysis to design the antenna systematically. The TCM analysis showed what current modes are the significant modes which can be excited efficiently to achieve the desired frequency band coverage. The overall structure of PIFA is also analyzed using TCM to find out the location of the radiating element on the ground plane. Second objective is to design a MIMO antenna system using the radiating element designed in first objective. So, two element and four element MIMO antennas are designed, simulated and analyzed for MIMO performance. One of the PIFA design is with L-shaped radiating element (Ant 1) and second one is with L-shaped L-slot radiating element (Ant 2). Ant 1 works in 3.5 GHz, 12 GHz, and 17 GHz bands while Ant 2 works in 3.5 GHz, 4.2 GHz, and a wide mmWave band. Without the use of any isolation enhancement technique, the isolation level between certain antenna elements is above -15 dB level which is not good for MIMO antennas. So, the third objective is to enhance the isolation between the antenna elements by using isolation enhancement technique. The technique used is to introduce a complimentary metamaterial unit cell placed between the antenna elements on the ground plane. The novel metamaterial unit cell is designed to exhibit metamaterial properties in 3.5 GHz band. This is because it has been observed that the isolation level is poor in 3.5 GHz band and inclusion of metamaterial unit cell in MIMO antenna design enhances the isolation by 8 dB in 3.5 GHz band. The fourth objective is to fabricate the proposed antenna structures and measure the antenna parameters using Network Analyzer and Anechoic Chamber. The measured and simulated results for all the proposed MIMO antenna designs shows good agreement with each other. As per our knowledge, the antenna design supporting both sub-6 GHz and mmWave bands is not reported before in the literature. So, the proposed MIMO antenna is novel as the same radiating element supports both sub-6 GHz and mmWave bands making the whole structure compact and leaving more space for other device components.
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