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|SINR Improvement in Mobile Environment uisng Beamforming
|Antennas;Mobile;Electronics engineering;Electronics and communication
|Deployment of antenna arrays is a very promising solution to reduce the signal stultification because of noise and interference. Another major obstacle after interference and noise is multipath fading. The different spatial signatures of various multi-paths can be utilized to separate them and thus reduce the multipath fading. A beamformer can be used for spatial filtering. Thus, combining the antenna array with a RAKE receiver can significantly improve the system performance. In this research, we investigate the application of antenna arrays as beamformer-RAKE receivers, also known as two dimensional (2-D) RAKE receivers. Four different types of beamformer structures like conventional beamformer, Null-steering beam Former, optimal beamformer and beamformer using a reference signal have been considered. Their highs and lows have been discussed in detail. The antenna gain plots for various parameters like inter-element spacing, number of antenna arms, number of interferers and interfering signal power have been studied to see their effects. The performance of the optimal beamformer has been investigated in both fading and non-fading environments. For this Nakagami channel fading model has been set up and probability of error has been calculated for different number of antenna arms. It was found out that the inter-element spacing should be kept around half wavelength. It was seen that 4 or 5 antenna elements are sufficient for satisfactory performance. It was also verified that M no. of antenna elements are sufficient in the presence of M-2 interferers. The beamforming schemes discussed in the thesis are applicable in the case when the array correlation matrix is known. The beamforming techniques in the otherwise case i.e. adaptive beamforming remain a further topic of study.
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